Objectives: To report a novel cell therapy using autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) for stress urinary incontinence caused by urethral sphincteric deficiency and the outcomes in two initial cases undergoing periurethral injection of stem cells for the treatment of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy.
Methods: Two patients with moderate stress incontinence after radical prostatectomy were enrolled. After liposuction of 250 mL of adipose tissue from the abdomen, we isolated ADSC from this tissue by using the Celution system. Subsequently, the isolated ADSC and a mixture of stem cells and adipose tissue were transurethrally injected into the rhabdosphincter and submucosal space of the urethra, respectively. Short-term outcomes during a 12-week follow-up were assessed by a 24-h pad test, a validated patient questionnaire, urethral pressure profile, transrectal ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging.
Results: Urinary incontinence progressively improved after 2 weeks of injection up to 12 weeks in terms of decreased leakage volume in a 24-h pad test, decreased frequency and amount of incontinence, and improved quality of life as per the questionnaire. In urethral pressure profile, both maximum urethral closing pressure and functional profile length increased. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging showed sustained presence of the injected adipose tissue. Enhanced ultrasonography showed a progressive increase in the blood flow to the injected area. No significant adverse events were observed peri- and postoperatively.
Conclusion: This preliminary study showed that periurethral injection of the autologous ADSC is a safe and feasible treatment modality for stress urinary incontinence.