Clinical guidelines for nocturia


  • The Committee for Establishment of the Clinical Guidelines for Nocturia of the Neurogenic Bladder Society

  • This is a translated Summary of a full guideline first published as a book in Japanese by The Neurogenic Bladder Society, Clinical Guidelines for Nocturia.

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    Committee member is shown at Appendix.

Osamu Nishizawa, md phd, The Neurogenic Bladder Society, Department of Urology, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 1110 Shimokato, Chuo city, Yamanashi 409-3898, Japan. Email:


Nocturia is a bothersome condition, defined as a complaint whereby the individual has to wake one or more times per night in order to void. Nocturia that occurs twice or more per night can have a substantial adverse effect on the patient's quality of life (QOL), and in many cases treatment may be required.

These guidelines provide a treatment algorithm for use by primary care physicians.

The initial assessment is conducted through a history taking interview. With a clear understanding of symptoms, patients can be classified into three broad categories: (1) nocturia only, (2) nocturia and diurnal pollakisuria without other lower urinary tract symptoms, and (3) nocturia and diurnal pollakisuria accompanying other lower urinary tract symptoms.

For treatment, the literature supporting each form of drug therapy was ranked and a recommendation grade was determined for each form of therapy. A grade of ‘F (pending)’ was applied to any drug not currently approved for use in Japan or for which the efficacy and safety in Japanese patients was unconfirmed at the time of evaluation.

We recommend instruction and guidance on water intake that will generally result in 24-h urine volume of 20 to 25 mL/kg. This corresponds to a daily water intake of 2.0% to 2.5% of body weight. In Japan, desmopressin is indicated for central diabetes insipidus and nocturnal enuresis, but not indicated for nocturia.

The therapeutic mechanism of the anticholinergic drugs for nocturia may depend on the action of the sensory nerve mediated by the muscarinic receptors.