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[ Masato Fujisawa M.D., Ph.D. Associate Editor ]

This issue consists of one Editorial, one Review Article, seven Original Articles, one Case Report, three Short Communications and three Letter to the Editor. These studies focus on various interesting topics that have been enthusiastically discussed among urologists in recent years. Hence, I believe that the content of this issue may include useful information for a wide variety of readers of this journal.

This issue starts with an Editorial from Kerke (Tamil Nadu, India). Professor Kerke is the chairman of the Department of Urology, Christian Medical College and also the Editor-in-Chief of the Indian Journal of Urology. In this contribution, he briefly summarized the history as well as the current status of urology in India, and strongly emphasized the importance of the collaboration of the Urological Society of India, the American Urological Association, the European Association of Urology and the Urological Association of Asia.

This issue then includes a review concerning the relationship of urologists with renal transplantation by Sackett et al. (Philadelphia, USA). Although, historically, urologists were the primary surgeons in renal transplantation, many renal transplants in the USA have tended to be carried out by surgeons with a general surgery background. In this review, therefore, the authors described the potential roles of urologists in the execution of renal transplantation, which could involve both medical and surgical intervention.

Consequently, seven excellent studies are reported as Original Articles. Suzuki et al. (Niigata, Japan) assessed the utility of the Kattan postoperative nomogram for renal cell carcinoma in a Japanese population. However, the authors found a slight discrepancy between the recurrence-free survival predicted by the Kattan nomogram and the likelihood of disease recurrence according to the Cox analysis in the current patient population; accordingly, they concluded that it would be necessary to construct a more useful nomogram for predicting the prognosis of Japanese patients with non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Ochiai et al. (Kyoto, Japan) reported the clinical utility of the prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) urine test in diagnosing prostate cancer among Japanese men undergoing prostate biopsy. Based on previous promising findings in Western populations, this assay targeting PCA3 in urine specimens has already been developed as the APTIMA PCA3 assay. In this series, the authors also showed the excellent specificity for detecting prostate cancer in Japanese men. Considering these findings, the prediction for prostate cancer could be improved by the assessment of PCA3 score, and this test would probably help to better select men who might benefit from prostate biopsy. Kubo et al. (Kitakyushu, Japan) investigated the risk of prostate cancer among shift workers in the industry-based retrospective cohort study. Compared with daytime workers, shift workers showed a non-significant increase in the risk of prostate cancer. Based on the findings of this study, longer-term follow up including the period after retirement would be required for identifying the prostate cancer risk among shift workers. Ikeda et al. (Sendai, Japan) analyzed risk factors for overactive bladder in the elderly population in Japan, and showed an association between overactive bladder and depressive symptoms, as well as alcohol intake, in elderly people. The remaining three original articles by Seki et al. (Fukuoka, Japan), Yokoyama et al. (Kurashiki, Japan) and Matsui et al. (Izumi, Japan) described the findings on voiding dynamics in women with urinary incontinence and high-stage cystocele, the effects of α-1 blockers on lower urinary symptoms and sexual function in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and ovotesticular disorders of sex development, respectively.

This issue also includes three Short Communications by Li et al. (Chengdu, China), Papatsoris et al. (Athens, Greece) and Park et al. (Busan, Korea) describing interesting topics regarding a putative responsible mutation of PKD1 gene in a family with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney, a comparison of nocturia as a result of benign prostatic hyperplasia between patients treated with tamsulosin and transurethral prostatectomy, and a comparative study between umbilical laparoendoscopic single site surgery and inguinal varicocelectomy for bilateral varicocele, respectively. If these studies were expanded by increasing the number of included patients, the current presented findings might be significantly strengthened.

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