For developing the Japanese guideline for the prevention of health care-associated infection in urological practice, we surveyed the literature including standard precautions, environmental considerations in both the inpatient and outpatient settings, the management of urinary catheters, endoscopy techniques, and the disinfection and sterilization of instruments used in endoscopies and related procedures. The concept of this guideline is to show the minimum precautions that urologists and other medical professionals should observe when they work in the urological field. Standard precautions based on hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment should be observed in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. In the inpatient setting, the management of the toilet is important. Collecting urine should be restricted only when it is necessary to determine a patient's urinary output. The management for urinary catheter and infection are created based on the “European and Asian guidelines on management and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections”. In addition, we propose that nephrostomy should be carried out after maximum barrier precautions have been taken. Urinary catheters are replaced in the event of an occlusion or if there are signs that an occlusion might occur, but the same catheter cannot be left in place for more than 2 months. Regarding the handling of urine containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis, airborne infection countermeasures are unnecessary, except for the laboratory personnel. For the procedures using urological endoscopes, aseptic techniques are recommended. Endoscopes and related devices should be used by sterilization or high-level disinfection, but formaldehyde gas cannot be used.