[ Masatoshi Tanaka M.D., Ph.D., Associate Editor ]
In this issue of the Journal, we have one Review Article, five Original Articles, two Short Communications, two Letters to the Editor, and one Meeting Report.
This issue starts with an excellent review article on immunohistochemical biomarkers for bladder cancer prognosis by Matsushita et al. (Sagamihara, Japan). Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) is an especially complex and heterogeneous disease with a broad spectrum of histologic findings and potentially lethal behavior. Standard prognostic features, such as pathologic stage and grade, have limited ability to predict the outcome for patients with UCB. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular events that can explain the clinical heterogeneity of UCB. In their review, Matsushita et al. describe the potential for molecular biomarkers, such as cell cycle makers and apoptosis markers, to improve the accuracy of current prediction models for recurrence and survival in patients with UCB.
A lymphocele (LC) is the most frequent complication of radical prostatectomy. Khoder et al. (Munich, Germany) retrospectively studied risk factors and possible prevention strategies for LC in 1163 prostate cancer patients with radical prostatectomy. They concluded that pelvic lymphadenectomy was the only independent significant risk factor for the development of post-radical prostatectomy LC and that LC prophylaxis was difficult.
Salvage high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is one of the treatment options for the local recurrence of prostate cancer without metastases after initial radical external beam radiation therapy. Berge et al. (Oslo, Norway) examined health-related quality of life (QOL) after salvage HIFU for localized radiorecurrent prostate cancer using the University of California, Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index questionnaire. They found that the treatment of localized radiorecurrent prostate cancer with salvage HIFU was associated with clinically significant reductions in urinary and sexual function domains after a mean follow-up of 17.5 months.
Nishida et al. (Osaka, Japan) evaluated the diagnostic value of 3.0-Tesla MRI performed prior to biopsy for the detection of prostate cancer and the factors influencing its accuracy by comparing the images and histopathological findings of stepwise sections of prostatectomy specimens. The results indicate that 3.0-Tesla MRI tends to accurately diagnose prostate cancer with high tumor burden and aggressiveness.
Hu et al. (Wuhan, China) investigated the effects of the junction protein p130 Crk-associated substance (p130Cas) and the adhesion molecules E-cadherin and β-catenin on the biological behavior of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. They found that p130Cas, E-cadherin and β-catenin may be useful predictors of the degree of malignancy of the bladder cancer.
Watanabe et al. (Nagoya, Japan) evaluated the effect of periurethral injection of low serum cultured adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (LASC) on urethral function and compared the effects with collagen injection. Periurethrally injected autologous LASC showed myogenic differentiation and exhibited a therapeutic advantage over collagen. This study suggests that ASC cultured in low serum medium have considerable potential as a novel stem cell source for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.
We also have two Short Communications, one on external validation of prognostic models for renal cell carcinoma recurrence in two patient populations by Utsumi et al. (Chiba, Japan) and one on the efficacy of the selective α1a-adrenoceptor antagonist silodosin in medical expulsive therapy for ureteral stones by Itoh et al. (Nagoya, Japan).