• adipose-derived regenerative cells;
  • adipose-derived stem cells;
  • injection;
  • prostatectomy;
  • stress urinary incontinence

Objectives:  To report a novel cell therapy using autologous adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells for male stress urinary incontinence caused by urethral sphincteric deficiency, and the outcomes in the initial cases undergoing periurethral injection of adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells.

Methods:  Three patients with moderate stress incontinence after radical prostatectomy and holmium laser enucleation of the prostate were enrolled. Adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells were isolated from the abdominal adipose tissue by using the Celution system. Subsequently, the isolated adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells, and a mixture of adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells and adipose tissue were transurethrally injected into the rhabdosphincter and submucosal space of the urethra, respectively. Short-term outcomes during a 6-month follow up were assessed by a 24-h pad test, a validated patient questionnaire, urethral pressure profile, transrectal ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

Results:  Urinary incontinence progressively improved after 2 weeks of injection up to 6 months in terms of decreased leakage volume, decreased frequency and amount of incontinence, and improved quality of life. Both maximum urethral closing pressure and functional profile length increased. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested a sustained presence of the injected adipose tissue. Enhanced ultrasonography showed a progressive increase in the blood flow to the injected area. No significant adverse events were observed peri- and postoperatively.

Conclusion:  These preliminary findings suggest that periurethral injection of the autologous adipose tissue-derived regenerative cells is a safe and feasible treatment modality for male stress urinary incontinence.