These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Original Article: Laboratory Investigation
Enhanced angiogenesis and relaxation of bladder as early response to bladder outlet obstruction
Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012
© 2012 The Japanese Urological Association
International Journal of Urology
Special Issue: Lower urinary tract dysfunction: From basic science to clinical management
Volume 20, Issue 1, pages 116–122, January 2013
How to Cite
Song, Y. S., Lee, H. J., Doo, S. W., An, J. and Kim, S. U. (2013), Enhanced angiogenesis and relaxation of bladder as early response to bladder outlet obstruction. International Journal of Urology, 20: 116–122. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2012.03217.x
- Issue published online: 2 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 6 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 SEP 2012
- Manuscript Received: 21 APR 2012
- Ministry of Education, Science & Technology (MEST)
- National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF). Grant Number: 2011-0547
- bladder dysfunction;
- bladder outlet obstruction;
- collagen deposit;
- nitric oxide synthase;
- vascular endothelial growth factor
To provide insights into the pathogenesis of bladder insult secondary to bladder outlet obstruction.
Six-week-old female Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were divided into eight groups, 10 rats each, according to the duration of bladder outlet obstruction, including 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h and 1 week. Cystometric parameters were evaluated at 72 h and 1 week after bladder outlet obstruction. Bladder tissues were harvested and Masson's trichrome staining was carried out. Each slide was inspected microscopically and the mean percent collagen area was examined. Changes of collagen deposition and pathological expression of several factors including hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-β1 and nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid of bladders were evaluated.
A significant time-dependent increase in the bladder weight after 6 h and the percent of collagen area after 24 h of bladder outlet obstruction were found. Increase in hypoxia inducible factor-1α, transforming growth factor-β1, inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression, time-dependent increase in vascular endothelial growth factor, neuronal nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase messenger ribonucleic acid expression after 6 h of bladder outlet obstruction was found. The intercontraction interval decreased significantly after 72 h of bladder outlet obstruction.
Cellular remodeling in the bladder secondary to bladder outlet obstruction starts in the early hours and it includes enhanced angiogenesis and bladder relaxation. Early relief from bladder outlet obstruction is helpful to preserve bladder structure and function.