Esophageal involvement occurs in about 80% of patients with systemic sclerosis, with a marked diminution of peristaltic pressures in the distal two-thirds of the esophagus. Our aims were to more fully characterize esophageal motility disorders in systemic sclerosis using high-resolution manometry (HRM) and to determine predictive factors of esophageal involvement. Fifty-one patients (46 females) with systemic sclerosis were included in this retrospective study. Esophageal motility was characterized with HRM. The demographic data, esophageal symptoms, presence of other organ involvement, and autoantibody profile (anti-Scl70 antibodies [Scl70], anticentromere antibodies [ACA]) were recorded for all patients. Esophageal body dysmotility was present in 33 patients (67.3%) and was associated with hypotensive esophagogastric junction in 27 patients (55.1%). The velocity of proximal contractions was higher in patients with esophageal body dysmotility compared to patients with normal peristalsis (median 10.8 cm/s vs. 5.5, P = 0.04). The amplitude of middle esophageal contraction but not of distal esophageal contraction was reduced in patients with hypoperistalsis. Diffuse esophageal skin involvement, presence of Scl70 and absence of ACA were associated with esophageal involvement. Esophageal symptoms encountered in 87.5% of patients were not predictive of esophageal dysmotility. This HRM series confirms the high prevalence of esophageal body dysmotility in systemic sclerosis. Diffuse skin involvement, positive Scl70 and negative ACA, but not esophageal symptoms, may predict esophageal body dysmotility.