Contribution of authors: B. H. designed the study, and collected and analyzed the data. M. J. analyzed the data, and drafted and finalized the manuscript. M. A. assisted in data collection and analysis. S. M. M. assisted in conducting the study and data acquisition. B. R. designed the study, analyzed the data, and contributed to the drafting of the manuscript. All authors approved the final version of this manuscript for submission.
Nutrient patterns and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study
Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011
© 2011 Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
Diseases of the Esophagus
Volume 25, Issue 5, pages 442–448, July 2012
How to Cite
Hajizadeh, B., Jessri, M., Akhoondan, M., Moasheri, S. M. and Rashidkhani, B. (2012), Nutrient patterns and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study. Diseases of the Esophagus, 25: 442–448. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2050.2011.01272.x
- Issue published online: 3 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 3 OCT 2011
- factor analysis;
- nutrient pattern;
- squamous cell carcinoma
Although Iran is a high-risk country for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the contribution of overall nutrient intakes to this high incidence rate is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nutrient patterns and risk of ESCC in Iran. Forty-seven patients with ESCC and 96 frequency-matched hospital controls underwent private interviews, and dietary habits were collected using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was conducted and two major nutrient patterns were retained; factor 1 (high in pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, vitamin B6, magnesium, folate, thiamin, copper, carbohydrate, vitamin K, niacin, α-tocopherol, zinc, total fiber, fluoride, and polyunsaturated fatty acids) and factor 2 (high in saturated fatty acid, biotin, selenium, monounsaturated fatty acids, riboflavin, sodium, fat, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, protein, iron, vitamin E, manganese, vitamin D, and vitamin B12). Factor 2 was inversely associated with ESCC (OR = 0.06, 95% CI: 0.01–0.28; P = 0.008), whereas no significant association was found for factor 1 (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.11–1.82). The results of the present study suggested a possible role for a nutrient pattern similar to factor 2 in reducing the risk of ESCC.