The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1) expression in relation to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), p53, and proliferation in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Expression of BCAR1, VEGF, p53, and the ki-67 proliferative index were examined by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry in 106 specimens with ESCC and matched adjacent normal tissues. Among them, 40 cases were simultaneously examined by Western blot. Both Western blot and immunohistochemistry showed that BCAR1 expression was substantially higher in ESCC than in adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.001). BCAR1 expression was significantly connected with degree of tumor differentiation, with poorly differentiated tumors showing higher BCAR1 expression (P < 0.001). BCAR1 expression was significantly and positively correlated with VEGF and p53 expression levels (r= 0.541, P < 0.001; r= 0.374; P < 0.001) but not proliferative index (r= 0.44; P= 0.066). Additionally, a significant relationship was also observed between VEGF and p53 (r= 0.321; P= 0.001). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with high BCAR1 expression had significantly shorter survival times than those with low BCAR1 expression levels (median survival 40 months vs. 27 months, P= 0.09). Multivariate analysis also revealed that levels of BCAR1 expression (hazard ratio 2.250, P= 0.015) was a significant and independent prognostic indicator. High expression of BCAR1 is associated with elevated VEGF and p53 expression levels, as well as poor prognosis in ESCC. Therefore, BCAR1 may be a potential candidate for predicting prognosis and a new therapy target for ESCC.