• bush regeneration;
  • evaluation;
  • landscape;
  • monitoring;
  • restoration;
  • ecological management

Summary  This brief review of the science and practice of ecological restoration and rehabilitation in Australia shows that, from small isolated efforts in the first half of the 20th century, substantial numbers of programmes are steadily emerging from natural area, agricultural landscape, mining and aquatic management sectors. With support from numerous research programmes in the last two decades, restoration and rehabilitation work is increasing in scale and ecological rigour; and researchers and practitioners are increasingly engaging with the international restoration discourse. Future improvements in prioritization, goal-setting, monitoring, evaluation and communication are, however, still needed to improve Australia’s capacity to meet its increasingly serious environmental challenges and do its bit to reduce and halt global degradation.