Summary Management interventions are needed to reverse the decline of Tuart (Eucalyptus gomphocephala) woodland in the Yalgorup area of south-west Western Australia where the largest intact remaining example of this ecosystem is located. Although the cause of the decline is uncertain and several factors may be involved, management action should not be withheld because the decline process is not fully understood. We contend that the reduction in fire frequency over the last 50 years has led to an increase in understorey density, particularly of Western Australian Peppermint (Agonis flexuosa), resulting in greater competition for resources, which may in turn have increased the susceptibility of healthy woodland to decline. In contrast to Tuart regeneration, which is usually tied to fire, Western Australian Peppermint can establish readily in unburnt woodland. Further, once Western Australian Peppermint seedlings develop to the lignotuberous stage, they can resprout vigorously after fire. Therefore, a combination of fire and the physical removal of understorey in sites where this species has formed extensive thickets is required to: (i) provide an opportunity for regeneration of Tuart in both healthy and declining stands; (ii) improve the chances of sustained recovery of Tuart trees in declining stands; and (iii) ensure heterogeneity in the vegetation at multiple scales, a recognized strategy for conserving biodiversity and increasing ecosystem resilience. We propose that this approach may also be relevant to other tree decline syndromes in southern Australia. However, fostering community support for active intervention using thinning and fire in conservation reserves and staging the operations within an experimental framework will be important for such action to gain both the social and scientific acceptance necessary for it to be applied widely.