Orthokeratology attempts to reduce myopia by remoulding the corneal shape with contact lenses. A recent resurgence is predicated on new contact lens designs with a prefigured back contact surface and higher oxygen transmissibility. This Clinical Controversy presents an analysis of the risk factors associated with orthokeratology and its suitability for children, followed by commentaries from specialists who have an interest in the method. Some state that there is a lack of data on relative risks of corneal infection and that there is a need for large-scale randomized controlled studies; however, opinion is expressed by others that orthokeratology is a clinically safe procedure using modern lenses. It is noted that the physiological and biophysical bases of orthokeratology are virtually unknown, and further research on the human cornea is indicated to scientifically establish the safety of orthokeratology. Prospective patients, and their parents in the case of children, should be fully informed of the risks.