In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea – a major review
Article first published online: 26 MAR 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists
Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Volume 37, Issue 1, pages 100–117, January/February 2009
How to Cite
Guthoff, R. F., Zhivov, A. and Stachs, O. (2009), In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea – a major review. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 37: 100–117. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2009.02016.x
- Issue published online: 26 MAR 2009
- Article first published online: 26 MAR 2009
- Received 24 July 2008; accepted 18 November 2008.
- confocal microscopy;
- laser scanning
The demands of modern ophthalmology have evolved from descriptive findings from the slit lamp to in vivo assessment of cellular level changes. Nowadays, the latter can be provided by in vivo confocal microscopy. This article gives an overview of confocal principles using tandem scanning, scanning slit and laser scanning techniques used in ophthalmology. The main part of the paper describes the clinical applications emphasizing the anatomy of the normal and pathological cornea, and illustrates side-effects of topical medication, contact lens wear, cross-linking and refractive surgery. Finally, a summary about experimental applications, including animal studies, surface characterization and volume rendering as well as future developments, is given.