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Vascular risk factors in glaucoma: a review

Authors

  • Masahide Yanagi MD,

    1. Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria
    2. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
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  • Ryo Kawasaki MD PhD,

    1. Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria
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  • Jie Jin Wang MMed PhD,

    1. Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria
    2. Centre for Vision Research, Westmead Millennium Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
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  • Tien Y Wong MD PhD,

    1. Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria
    2. Singapore Eye Research Institute, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
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  • Jonathan Crowston FRANZCO PhD,

    1. Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria
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  • Yoshiaki Kiuchi MD PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
      Dr Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan. Email: ykiuchi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp
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Dr Yoshiaki Kiuchi, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan. Email: ykiuchi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Glaucoma, one of the major causes of blindness in the world, is a progressive optic neuropathy. Elevated intraocular pressure is a well-known major risk factor for glaucoma. In addition, there is growing evidence that vascular factors may play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis. Systemic (e.g. hypertension, diabetes) and ocular vascular factors (e.g. ocular blood flow, ocular perfusion pressure) have been assessed for associations with glaucoma. However, direct and convincing evidence for primary mechanisms of glaucoma is still lacking. The aim of this review is to summarize the evidence implicating vascular factors in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, with particular emphasis on the role of ocular blood flow and ocular circulation as risk factors for primary open angle glaucoma.

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