Singapore Malay Eye Study: rationale and methodology of 6-year follow-up study (SiMES-2)


  • Competing/conflicts of interest: No stated conflict of interest.

  • Funding sources: This study was supported by the National Medical Research Council Grants no. 0796/2003 and Biomedical Research Council Grant no. 501/1/25-5.

Professor Tien Yin Wong, Singapore Eye Research Institute, 11 Third Hospital Avenue, #05-00, Singapore 168751. Email:


Background:  To describe the rationale and study design of a follow-up epidemiological eye study among Singaporean Malay adults.

Design:  Follow-up prospective population-based study.

Participants:  Participants of the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES-1), which was conducted from August 2004 to June 2006.

Methods:  This is a follow-up study of the 3280 participants who participated in the SiMES-1 and are residing in Singapore. All participants of this follow-up study will undergo various standardized validated questionnaires on socio-demographics, quality of life and impact of visual impairment. Participants will undergo assessment of blood pressure, anthropometry, presenting and best corrected visual acuity, subjective refraction, ocular biometry, slit lamp and dilated eye examination, Goldmann tonometry, optic disc imaging, digital lens and retinal photography. Retinal tomography, retinal optical coherence topography and fundus autofluorescence will also be performed. Gonioscopy and visual fields examination will be performed on selected individuals.

Main Outcome Measures:  Incidence, risk factors and impact of visual impairment and major eye diseases.

Results:  A total of 3280 people who participated in the SiMES-1 will be contacted and invited to participate in this follow-up study. It is estimated that 12.8% of the participants will be deceased and there will be an 80% participation rate for the survivors of SiMES-1 (approximately 2288 participants).

Conclusion:  SiMES-2 will be one of the few follow-up epidemiological eye studies among Asians and will determine the cumulative 6-year incidence, progression, risk factors and impact of major eye diseases in Singaporean Malay adults.