Competing/conflicts of interest: No stated conflict of interest.
Glaucoma and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
Article first published online: 23 APR 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists
Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Volume 40, Issue 4, pages 408–419, May/June 2012
How to Cite
Faridi, O., Park, S. C., Liebmann, J. M. and Ritch, R. (2012), Glaucoma and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 40: 408–419. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2012.02768.x
Funding sources: Supported by the Joseph Cohen Research Fund of the New York Glaucoma Research Institute, New York, NY.
- Issue published online: 14 JUN 2012
- Article first published online: 23 APR 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 17 FEB 2012 05:03AM EST
- Received 15 August 2011; accepted 15 November 2011.
- normal-tension glaucoma;
- sleep apnoea
Glaucoma is increasingly recognized as a manifestation of both ocular and systemic risk factors. A number of disorders associated with reduced blood flow and ischaemia, collectively termed vascular risk factors, such as migraine, Raynaud's phenomenon, atrial fibrillation and reduced nocturnal blood pressure, lead to decreased ocular perfusion pressure. During sleep, alterations occur in cardiovascular physiology that are balanced by autoregulation to maintain homeostasis. However, in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), the normal physiological balance is upset. A potentially modifiable risk factor, OSA has been increasingly associated with glaucoma independent of intraocular pressure. OSA may alter blood flow to the optic nerve head and, in combination with other predisposing factors, lead to decreased ocular perfusion pressure. This in turn may directly affect the optic nerve or it may indirectly increase its susceptibility to other insults. The purpose of this review is to shed light on the association between OSA and glaucoma.