Proteomics, a highly sophisticated way to study the protein profile of various biological tissues or fluids, has hitherto had a relatively limited role ophthalmic science. Of the few proteomic studies that have been performed, liquid chromatography, electrophoresis gel separation and mass spectrometry have been utilized to investigate the proteome of several different eye structures and fluids from both humans and animal models. Ophthalmic proteomic studies have so far attempted to identify proteins unique to the eye, to investigate protein changes due to the onset of various diseases and to identify proteins that could act as markers of disease. Proteomics has the potential to improve the way in which eye disease is diagnosed and potentially even treated by identifying novel pathogenic pathways that may be susceptible to therapeutic manipulation. The aim of this review is to give an overview the current and potential application of proteomic science to ophthalmic research.