Competing/conflicts of interest: No stated conflict of interest.
Perspective: what does the term functional mean in the context of epiphora?
Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists
Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Volume 40, Issue 7, pages 749–754, September/October 2012
How to Cite
Chan, W., Malhotra, R., Kakizaki, H., Leibovitch, I. and Selva, D. (2012), Perspective: what does the term functional mean in the context of epiphora?. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 40: 749–754. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2012.02791.x
Funding sources: No stated funding sources.
- Issue published online: 9 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 19 MAR 2012 09:39AM EST
- Received 9 May 2011; accepted 13 February 2012.
- functional block;
- nasolacrimal duct;
The term ‘functional block’ is used to encompass the concept of lacrimal drainage dysfunction in the presence of anatomical patency. There is significant variability in the nomenclature, clinical and investigative criteria used in the literature to define this entity. This has led to confusion and lack of comparability of studies looking at this group. The clinical features, investigative findings and treatment options in this group of patients are described. In addition, the need to differentiate between nasolacrimal stenosis and ‘functional block’ is emphasized, as evidence suggest patients with nasolacrimal duct stenosis have better outcomes with dacryocystorhinostomy. To better define the disease entity and enable comparability of future studies, it was proposed that this entity be replaced by the term functional epiphora with no delay, pre- or post-sac delay.