Background: To evaluate different mechanisms of primary angle closure and to quantify anterior chamber parameters in these mechanisms using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in an Asian population.
Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional observational study.
Participants: Forty-eight consecutive patients with primary angle closure glaucoma.
Methods: Patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination and imaging of nasal-temporal angles with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Images were categorized into four primary angle closure mechanisms: pupil block, plateau iris configuration, Thick peripheral iris roll and exaggerated lens vault. Parameters computed: anterior chamber depth central, anterior chamber depth at 1000 µm and 2000 µm anterior to scleral spur, lens vault, anterior chamber area, angle opening distance, trabecular iris space area and iris thickness.
Main Outcome Measure: Anterior chamber parameters and primary angle closure mechanisms.
Results: Mean values of anterior chamber depths: central (P < 0.001), at 2000 µm (P < 0.001), 1000 µm (P < 0.001), lens vault (P < 0.001), anterior chamber area (P < 0.001), were significantly different among the four groups. Multivariate analysis showed anterior chamber depths: central, and anterior chamber depth at 2000 µm and anterior chamber area were higher in plateau iris and Thick peripheral iris roll and lower in exaggerated lens vault (P < 0.001) as compared to pupil block mechanism, lens vault was greater in exaggerated lens vault (P < 0.001) and lesser in plateau iris and Thick peripheral iris roll as compared to pupil block mechanism.
Conclusion: Anterior segment optical coherence tomography may be used for evaluation of underlying primary angle closure mechanism(s) in a patient and tailor the treatment accordingly.