Competing/conflicts of interest: No stated conflict of interest.
Ocular toxoplasmosis I: parasitology, epidemiology and public health
Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists
Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Volume 41, Issue 1, pages 82–94, January/February 2013
How to Cite
Furtado, J. M., Winthrop, K. L., Butler, N. J. and Smith, J. R. (2013), Ocular toxoplasmosis I: parasitology, epidemiology and public health. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, 41: 82–94. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-9071.2012.02821.x
Funding sources: Supported in part by Research to Prevent Blindness (unrestricted grant to Casey Eye Institute), and the Schnitzer Novack Foundation.
- Issue published online: 28 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 11 JUL 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 18 MAY 2012 04:01AM EST
- Received 8 February 2012; accepted 17 April 2012.
- public health;
- Toxoplasma gondii;
Ocular toxoplasmosis results from retinal infection with the protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. This parasite, which exists as multiple clonal subpopulations and in three stages, is capable of replication in any nucleated cell of its primary feline or multiple paratenic hosts. Human seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is high across the globe, but with geographic variation. While prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis is not well documented, toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis is the commonest form of posterior uveitis in many countries. Correlation of parasite genotype with disease is an important area of new research. Ocular infection with T. gondii often follows ingestion of bradyzoites in undercooked infected meat. Oocysts may survive for an extended period in the environment, and water contaminated with oocysts is an important source in toxoplasmosis epidemics. Ocular toxoplasmosis is preventable by a combination of community activities and personal measures. Public health action is well justified by the considerable burden of congenital and postnatal infections.