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Topical ganciclovir treatment in patients with cytomegalovirus endotheliitis receiving penetrating keratoplasty

Authors

  • Chien-Chia Su MD,

    1. Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • I-Jong Wang MD PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Wei-Li Chen MD PhD,

    1. Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    2. College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Chang-Pin Lin MD,

    1. Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Brian His BS,

    1. Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Fung-Rong Hu MD

    1. Department of Ophthalmology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
    2. College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
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  • Competing/conflicts of interest: No stated conflict of interest.
  • Funding sources: National Science Council, Taipei, Taiwan NSC95-2314-B002-153-MY2.

Correspondence: Dr I-Jong Wang, No. 7, Chung-Shan S. Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan. Email: ijong@ms8.hinet.net

Abstract

Background

To report seven cases diagnosed as cytomegalovirus endotheliitis and treated with topical 2% ganciclovir following penetrating keratoplasty.

Design

A retrospectively comparative case series.

Participants

A retrospective interventional case series, including seven eyes of seven patients with cytomegalovirus endotheliitis after penetrating keratoplasty.

Methods

Clinical and immunological characteristics were studied in seven penetrating keratoplasty cases with positive quantitative polymerase chain reaction results for cytomegalovirus DNA from aqueous taps and treated with topical 2% ganciclovir.

Main Outcome Measures

Clinical features and responses to topical 2% ganciclovir.

Results

Seven immunocompetent patients experienced acute anterior inflammation with graft oedema and pigmented keratic precipitates after penetrating keratoplasty. Their immunological profiles showed immunoglobulin G cytomegalovirus (+) and immunoglobulin M cytomegalovirus (–) in all cases. Topical 2% ganciclovir was prescribed every 2 to 3 h daily as induction therapy and every 4 h as long-term maintenance therapy. All cases had undetectable cytomegalovirus DNA after follow-up aqueous taps. Topical 2% ganciclovir preserved endothelium of cytomegalovirus-infected grafts at early stage and also provided a steady anticytomegalovirus environment for further regrafting in failed grafts at late stage. Acute inflammation reactivated in two cases and was suppressible by steroid under topical ganciclovir. No delayed re-epithelialization and any toxicity were observed. To date, no case treated in this way had displayed cytomegalovirus recurrence.

Conclusions

Continuous topical 2% ganciclovir and a topical steroid adjusted by anterior inflammation are suggested after penetrating keratoplasty in all cases with cytomegalovirus endotheliitis to prevent cytomegalovirus recurrence.

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