Abstract The Capricorn Group of islands in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park sustains one of the world's largest breeding populations of the Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus. Heron Island, a 13.5 ha coral cay which supports tourist and research station leases as well as a national park, is the third largest nesting island in the group. Sample censuses of breeding burrows were conducted each year between 1985 and 1990 and a further survey was completed in 1993. These returned estimates of between 13 264±1387 and 16 337±1545 active burrows (Y±SE). Burrow densities within each of the habitats monitored showed no significant trends between years, although there were large differences in burrow density between habitats. There were roughly the same number of burrows in the developed (west) and national park (east) halves of the cay. A miniature video camera system (burrowscope), which allowed nesting chambers at the ends of burrows to be inspected, was used in 1989, 1990 and 1993. This demonstrated that around half the burrows were occupied by incubating birds. Variations were found in the distribution of incubating birds between habitats, although this did not remain constant between the years. In the 1993 season, breeding activity was traced from the burrow establishment to fledging stage. Fifty-one per cent of burrows were used for breeding (eggs laid), 77% of eggs hatched and 80% of chicks produced a fledgling. Overall breeding success for the island was estimated at 61%. In 1993 the area designated as Buildings was found to have significantly lower hatching success compared with natural habitats. Most mortality occurred at the egg stage; however, in the Fringe habitat, mortality was highest at the chick stage. Previous surveys have estimated the breeding population from burrow counts. It now appears that only about 30% of such burrows produce fledglings.