A cost-effective method of assessing thermal habitat quality for endotherms



The conservation of many endothermic species depends critically on the availability of suitable retreat sites, yet we know little about the variation in thermal quality of such microhabitats. Studies of thermal habitat suitability for birds and mammals must account for the effect of endothermic heat production on their microclimates. For example, endotherms may significantly raise the air temperature in their retreat sites and this effect must be considered when assessing retreat site quality. We devised an inexpensive means by which to construct pseudo-endothermic ‘environmental temperature’ models with the use of disposable heat pads. We applied this technique to investigate thermal aspects of nest box design, illustrating the potential positive and negative effects of nest box insulation depending on the environmental context. We suggest that, from a thermal perspective, the avoidance of heat stress is an important and underappreciated issue in the retreat site selection of endotherms.