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Keywords:

  • community structure;
  • distance decay;
  • disturbance;
  • heterogeneity;
  • species abundance distribution

Abstract

Very little is known of how disturbance affects community assembly rules. We examine this in three disturbance states in each of two ski areas on southern New Zealand mountains. Theory suggests that a community will become progressively more spatially organized during recovery from disturbance. Firstly, different patches of the community should become more similar through time, but this was seen in only one of the two areas and even then only examining species presence/absence. Secondly, it has been suggested that spatial autocorrelation will be stronger in less-disturbed conditions, that is, there will be a stronger pattern of more distant patches being more dissimilar in species composition. This was generally borne out. However, the method indicated more point randomness in less-disturbed sites. Assembly rules might be seen in species abundances. Previous work has found maximum evenness of abundances in later successional communities, but the pattern here was the opposite: high evenness in the most disturbed communities. The literature suggests that in undisturbed communities the distribution of species abundances (relative abundance distribution) will be general lognormal, and we further argue that the identity of the species across occupying rank positions in that distribution should be more consistent (rank consistency). Both predictions were borne out in one area, but neither in the other. Many workers suggest that niche-based assembly rules will be stronger in undisturbed communities. However, there was only weak evidence of constancy in species richness. Local species assemblages tended to contain a relatively constant representation from different morphological/taxonomic guilds (guild proportionality) and this was significant in some tests, but contrary to theory this effect occurred mainly in the most disturbed sites. It is concluded that there is only limited truth in the frequent assumption that community structure is stronger in undisturbed, equilibrium communities.