Abstract: The influence of endoscopic examination on the occurrence of arrhythmia was investigated electrocardiographically in 30 patients with cardiovascular disease who underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) (group A) and 38 patients with digestive tract disease who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) (group B). The mode and frequency of arrhythmia during the examination were compared between the two groups. (1) Arrhythmia was more frequently observed in group A (22 of 30, 73.3%) than in group B (9 of 38, 23.7%) patients (p<0.001). The common arrhythmias in both groups were supraventricular premature beat and ventricular premature beat. Serious arrhythmias, such as 2nd degree atrioventricular block and ventricular fibrillation were detected only in group A patients. (2) The region of the esophagus where the tip of the probe or scope was located was classified into three segments: upper (0–15 cm), middle (15–35 cm) and lower (35 cm<). Arrhythmias tended to be frequent when the tip of the probe or scope was located in the middle segment of the esophagus. These data indicate that arrhythmias observed during TEE or UGIE are related to the underlying heart disease. Furthermore, the middle segment of the esophagus appears to be particularly susceptible to the provocation of arrhythmia.