Shinji Tanaka, Department of Endoscopy, Hiroshima University Hospital, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551, Japan. Email:


Most colorectal tumors larger than 20 mm in diameter are called laterally spreading tumors (LST), most of which are adenomatous lesions. Laterally spreading tumors are classified into two types according to their morphology, granular type (LST-G) and non-granular type (LST-NG). Each type has two subtypes. The former consists of a ‘homogenous type’ and a ‘nodular mixed type’, while the latter consists of a ‘flat elevated (FE) type’ and a ‘psedodepressed (PD) type’. In LST-G and LST-NG FE types, type V pit pattern with magnification enables the recognition of the carcinomatous or submucosal invasive area. Most of these adenomatous large lesions can be cured by scheduled endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection (EPMR). However, LST-G with large whole nodular type or type V pit pattern, which cannot be resected en bloc with a snare, is an indication for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The LST-NG PD has a high frequency of submucosal invasion and the submucosal invasive area cannot be recognized correctly in the pseudodepression with magnification prior to endoscopic treatment. Therefore, en bloc resection with ESD should be applied to LST-NG PD. The therapeutic strategy for choosing between EPMR and ESD for large LST lesions should therefore be determined based on the macroscopic findings of their subtype and pit pattern findings.