• benign biliary stricture;
  • plastic stent;
  • self-expandable metallic stent

In the Endoscopic Forum Japan 2011 (EFJ 2011), we focused on the management of biliary strictures derived from chronic pancreatitis and surgical intervention. We concluded that regardless of causes of strictures, a large bore single plastic stent is better as a first choice of stenting. As a next step, multiple plastic stents may be preferable compared to a covered self-expandable metallic stent in case of unexpected adverse events and cost of stent. In the near future, we believe that not only progress of treatment technique and accessories but also good understanding of the pathology of biliary strictures will lead to the best management.