• colonoscopy;
  • colorectum;
  • endoscopic submucosal dissection;
  • training model;
  • Western countries

Various studies by Japanese endoscopists have demonstrated that colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) can overcome technical limitations of the endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) technique such as piecemeal resection for flat lesions larger than 20 mm, resection of lesions involving the dentate line or the ileocecal valve and lesions with the non-lifting sign, and achieve higher en bloc resection rate. However, it is infrequently performed in Western countries in comparison with Japan, despite the advantages explained above. There are some differences between Japan and Western countries in environments and clinical settings for performing ESD in the colorectum. Endoscopists who perform colorectal ESD around the world are considering that refinements in ESD techniques, devices and training will be necessary to further reduce a higher risk of complications and longer procedure times before adoption of ESD can be recommended on a widespread international scale.