• 1
    Fishman GA. Toxic retinopathies. Contemp Ophthalmol 1980; 1: 15.
  • 2
    Tobin R, Krobel GB, Ryners RI. Hydroxychloroquine: Seven years experience. Arch Ophthalmol 1982; 100: 8183.
  • 3
    Infante I, Martin AD, Heckenlively RJ. Hydroxychloroquine and retinal toxicity. In: Kolder HEJW ed. 20th ISCEV Symposium, Iowa City, Iowa, USA. Doc Ophthalmol Proc Series 1983; 37: 121126.
  • 4
    Rigaudiere F, Pizzato M, Albuisson E, Le Gargasson JF, Grall Y. Statistical results of 700 electrophysiologic tests (ERG) in patients without ophthalmologic manifestations treated with synthetic antimalarials for rheumatologic or dermatologic disease. Ophthalmologie 1990; 4: 254259.
  • 5
    Weiner A, Sandberg MA, Gaudio AR, Kini MM, Berson EL. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 1991; 112: 528534.
  • 6
    Falcone PM, Paolini L, Lou PL. Hydroxychloroquine toxicity despite normal dose therapy. Ann Ophthalmol 1993; 25: 385388.
  • 7
    Fishman G. The Electroretinogram. In: FishmanGA, BirchDG, HolderGE, BrigellMG. 2nd ed. Electrophysiologic Testing in Disorders of the Retina, Optic Nerve and Visual Pathway. Singapore: LEO: The Foundation of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. 2001. p 8890.
  • 8
    Shroyer NF, Lewis RA, Lupski JR. Analysis of the ABCR (ABCA4) gene in 4-aminoquinoline retinopathy: is retinal toxicity by chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine related to Stargardt disease? Am J Ophthalmol 2001; 131: 761766.
  • 9
    Mehta D. British National Formulary 53-55 Pharmaceutical 3/2007: 298, 481-2, 623 and 3/2008: 239-234, 420. LEGO, Lavis (TN). BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, BMA House Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JP, UK RPS Publishing, Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1 Lambeth High Street, London, SEI 7 JN, UK.
  • 10
    Sutter EE, Tran D. The field topography of ERG components in man. The photopic luminance response. Vision Res 1992; 32: 433466.
  • 11
    Maturi RK, Folk JC, Nichols B, Oetting TT, Kardon RH. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1999; 117: 12621263.
  • 12
    Marmor MF. New American Academy of Ophthalmology recommendations on screening for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Arthritis Rheum 2003; 48: 176174.
  • 13
    Maturi KR, Yu M, Weleber RG. Multifocal electroretinographic evaluation of long-term hydroxychloroquine users. Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122: 973981.
  • 14
    Tzekov RT, Serrato A, Marmor MF. ERG findings in patients using hydroxychloroquine. Doc Ophthalmol 2004; 108: 8797.
  • 15
    Marmor MF, Holder GE, Seehiger MW, Yamamoto S. Standard for clinical electroretinography (2004 update). Doc Ophthalmol 2004; 108: 107114.
  • 16
    Hood DC, Bach M, Brigell M, Keating D, Kondo M, Lyons JS, Palmowski-Wolfe A. ISCEV guidelines for clinical multifocal electroretinography (2007 ed). Doc Ophthalmol 2008; 116: 111.
  • 17
    Nebbioso M, Grenga R, Karavitis P. Early detection of macular changes with multifocal ERG in patients on antimalarial drug therapy. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2009; 25: 24958.
  • 18
    Lyons JS, Severns ML. Using multifocal ERG ring ratios to detect and follow Plaquenil retinal toxicity: a review: Review of mfERG ring ratios in Plaquenil toxicity. Doc Ophthalmol 2009; 118: 2936.
  • 19
    Kellner U, Kraus H, Foerster MH. Multifocal ERG in chloroquine retinopathy: regional variant retinal dysfunction. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2000; 238: 9497.
  • 20
    So SC, Hedges TR, Schuman JS, Quireza ML. Evaluation of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy with multifocal electroretinography. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging 2003; 34; 251258.
  • 21
    Penrose PJ, Tzekov RT, Sutter EE, Fu AD, Allen AW Jr, Fung WE, Oxoford KW. Multifocal electroretinography evaluation for early detection of retinal dysfunction in patients taking hydroxychloroquine. Retina 2003; 23: 503512.
  • 22
    Moschos MN, Moschos MM, Apostolopoulos M, Mallias JA, Bouros C, Theodossiadis GP. Assessing hydroxychloroquine toxicity by the multifocal ERG. Docum Ophthalmol 2004; 108: 4753.
  • 23
    Lai TYY, Chan WM, Li H, Lai RYK, Lam DSC. Multifocal electroretinographic changes in patients receiving hydroxychloroquine therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 2005; 140: 794807.
  • 24
    Marmor MF. The dilemma of hydroxychloroquine screening: new information from the multifocal ERG. Am J Ophthalmol 2005; 140: 894895.
  • 25
    Rüther K, Foerster J, Berndt S, Schroeter J. Chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine: variability of retinotoxic cumulative doses. Ophthalmologe 2007; 104: 875879.
  • 26
    Chang WH, Katz BJ, Warner JE. A, Vitale AT, Creel D, Digre KB. A novel method for screening the multifocal electroretinogram in patients using hydroxychloroquine. Retina 2008; 28: 14781486.
  • 27
    Lai TY, Ngai JW, Chan WM, Lam DS. Visual field and multifocal electroretinography and their correlations in patients on hydroxychloroquine therapy. Doc Ophthalmol 2006: 112; 177187.
  • 28
    Kellner U, Renner AB, Tillack H. Fundus autofluorescence and mfERG for early detection of retinal alterations using chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47: 35313538.
  • 29
    Rodriguez-Padilla JA, Hedges TR 3rd, Monson B, Srinivasan V, Wojtkowski M, Reichel E, Duker JS et al. High-speed ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography findings in hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 2007; 125: 775780.
  • 30
    Hood DC, Frishman LJ, Saszik S, Viswanathan S. Retinal origins of the primate multifocal ERG: Implications for the human response. Inv Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2002; 43: 16731685.
  • 31
    Pinckers A, Broekhuyse RM. The EOG in rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Ophthalmol 1983; 61: 831837.
  • 32
    Marmor MF, Carr RE, Easterbrook M, Farjo AA, Mieler WF. Recommendations on screening for chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. A report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2002; 109: 13771382.
  • 33
    Tzekov R. Ocular toxicity due to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine: mfERG in anti-malarial retinopathy electrophysiological and visual function correlates. Doc Ophthalmol 2005; 110: 111120.