Furazolidone, an antibacterial drug that was once widely used in the livestock industry and aquaculture, is now prohibited in numerous countries. It is difficult to detect residual furazolidone because it is readily metabolized in animal tissues but, by using and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, its metabolite, 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) can be detected. Here we describe the validity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit to detect AOZ in Japanese eel Anguilla japonica tissue. ELISA is capable of detecting AOZ at 1.0 μg/kg in an eel sample with excellent accuracy and precision. Our results show that ELISA is suitable for regulatory purposes and for studying the fate of AOZ residues in eel treated with furazolidone. To measure the persistence of AOZ in eel tissues, eels (1.4–6.5 g) were immersed in tanks containing 2 and 10 mg furazolidone/L for 3 h, and then maintained in a tank supplying well water for the next 160 days. The half-lives of AOZ, calculated from the linear terminal part of the excretion curve, were 25.0 days in muscle and 21.6 days in liver from fish exposed to 2 mg/L furazolidone. In the eels treated with 10 mg/L furazolidone, by contrast, high levels of AOZ were detected in liver and muscle, but the half-lives of AOZ were similar to those in fish treated with 2 mg/L furazolidone. The half-lives of AOZ in eel tissues were prolonged by the condition of low water temperature.