• clam cystoplasty;
  • enterocystoplasty;
  • incontinence;
  • overactive bladder dysfunction.

A clam enterocystoplasty was performed for refractory urge incontinence due to either idiopathic instability (13 patients) or neuropathic hyperreflexia (10 patients). Twelve patients became dry and appliance free. Of the remaining 11 wet patients, seven developed low pressure reservoirs, of whom five had stress incontinence and two had overtlow incontinence. The other four patients had persistent symptomatic involuntary phasic contractions and ongoing urge incontinence. The magnitude of the surgery and the voiding dysfunction associated with the relative lack of motivation of elderly patients made the operation less successful and more hazardous in those over the age of 65. Successful outcome could be improved by careful patient selection and by performing an antistress incontinence procedure, such as implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter cuff or a cystourethropexy, where there is associated bladder outlet incompetence.