• 1
    Lingaratnam S, Slavin MA, Mileshkin L, Burbury K, Solomon B, Koczwara B et al. An Australian survey of clinical practices in management of neutropenic fever in adult cancer patients 2009. Intern Med J. 2011; 41b: 11020.
  • 2
    Klastersky J, Paesmans M, Rubenstein EB, Boyer M, Elting L, Feld R et al. The Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer risk index: a multinational scoring system for identifying low-risk febrile neutropenic cancer patients. J Clin Oncol 2000; 18: 303851.
  • 3
    Tam C, O'Reilly M, Andresen D, Lingaratnam S, Kelly A, Burbury K et al. Use of empiric antimicrobial therapy in neutropenic fever. Intern Med J 2011; 41b: 90101.
  • 4
    Chamilos G, Bamias A, Efstathiou E, Zorzou PM, Kastritis E, Kostis E et al. Outpatient treatment of low-risk neutropenic fever in cancer patients using oral moxifloxacin. Cancer 2005; 103: 262935.
  • 5
    Klastersky J, Paesmans M, Georgala A, Muanza F, Plehiers B, Dubreucq L et al. Outpatient oral antibiotics for febrile neutropenic cancer patients using a score predictive for complications. J Clin Oncol 2006; 24: 412934.
  • 6
    Sebban C, Dussart S, Fuhrmann C, Ghesquieres H, Rodrigues I, Geoffrois L et al. Oral moxifloxacin or intravenous ceftriaxone for the treatment of low-risk neutropenic fever in cancer patients sui' for early hospital discharge. Support Care Cancer 2008; 16: 101723.
  • 7
    Pettengell R, Bosly A, Szucs TD, Jackisch C, Leonard R, Paridaens R et al. Multivariate analysis of febrile neutropenia occurrence in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: data from the INC-EU Prospective Observational European Neutropenia Study. Br J Haematol 2009; 144: 67785.
  • 8
    Talcott JA, Finberg R, Mayer RJ, Goldman L. The medical course of cancer patients with fever and neutropenia. Clinical identification of a low-risk subgroup at presentation. Arch Intern Med 1988; 148: 25618.
  • 9
    Vidal L, Paul M, Ben-Dor I, Pokroy E, Soares-Weiser K, Leibovici L. Oral versus intravenous antibiotic treatment for febrile neutropenia in cancer patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; CD003992.
  • 10
    Klastersky J. Management of fever in neutropenic patients with different risks of complications. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39 (Suppl 1): S327.
  • 11
    Carstensen M, Sorensen JB. Outpatient management of febrile neutropenia: time to revise the present treatment strategy. J Support Oncol 2008; 6: 199208.
  • 12
    Halim TY, Song KW, Barnett MJ, Forrest DL, Hogge DE, Nantel SH et al. Positive impact of selective outpatient management of high-risk acute myelogenous leukemia on the incidence of septicemia. Ann Oncol 2007; 18: 124652.
  • 13
    Datta R, Huang SS. Risk of infection and death due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in long-term carriers. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47: 17681.
  • 14
    Davis KA, Stewart JJ, Crouch HK, Florez CE, Hospenthal DR. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares colonization at hospital admission and its effect on subsequent MRSA infection. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39: 77682.
  • 15
    Salgado CD. The risk of developing a vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bloodstream infection for colonized patients. Am J Infect Control 2008; 36: S175 e58.
  • 16
    Corbella X, Dominguez MA, Pujol M, Ayats J, Sendra M, Pallares R et al. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage as a marker for subsequent staphylococcal infections in intensive care unit patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1997; 16: 3517.
  • 17
    Mihu CN, Schaub J, Kesh S, Jakubowski A, Sepkowitz K, Pamer EG et al. Risk factors for late Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a single-institution, nested case-controlled study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2008; 14: 142933.
  • 18
    Worth LJ, Slavin MA, Vankerckhoven V, Goossens H, Grabsch EA, Thursky KA. Virulence determinants in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium vanB: clonal distribution, prevalence and significance of esp and hyl in Australian patients with haematological disorders. J Hosp Infect 2008; 68: 13744.
  • 19
    Bossaer JB, Hall PD, Garrett-Mayer E. Incidence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infection in high-risk febrile neutropenic patients colonized with VRE. Support Care Cancer 2010, Jan 13 (Epub ahead of print).
  • 20
    Olivier CN, Blake RK, Steed LL, Salgado CD. Risk of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bloodstream infection among patients colonized with VRE. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008; 29: 4049.
  • 21
    Hagiwara S, Miwa A, Yoshida M, Imagawa S, Komatu N, Muroi K et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: colonization and development of infection in patients with haematological disorders. Eur J Haematol 1995; 55: 26771.
  • 22
    Nimmo GR, Pearson JC, Collignon PJ, Christiansen KJ, Coombs GW, Bell JM et al. Prevalence of MRSA among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from hospital inpatients, 2005: report from the Australian Group for Antimicrobial Resistance. Commun Dis Intell 2007; 31: 28896.
  • 23
    Chambers HF. Treatment of infection and colonization caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1991; 12: 2935.
  • 24
    Cherif H, Johansson E, Bjorkholm M, Kalin M. The feasibility of early hospital discharge with oral antimicrobial therapy in low risk patients with febrile neutropenia following chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Haematologica 2006; 91: 21522.
  • 25
    Hidalgo M, Hornedo J, Lumbreras C, Trigo JM, Colomer R, Perea S et al. Outpatient therapy with oral ofloxacin for patients with low risk neutropenia and fever: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Cancer 1999; 85: 2139.
  • 26
    Escalante CP, Rubenstein EB, Rolston KV. Outpatient antibiotic therapy for febrile episodes in low-risk neutropenic patients with cancer. Cancer Invest 1997; 15: 23742.
  • 27
    Rubenstein EB, Rolston K. Outpatient management of febrile episodes in neutropenic cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 1994; 2: 36973.
  • 28
    Rubenstein EB, Rolston K, Benjamin RS, Loewy J, Escalante C, Manzullo E et al. Outpatient treatment of febrile episodes in low-risk neutropenic patients with cancer. Cancer 1993; 71: 36406.
  • 29
    Malik IA, Khan WA, Karim M, Aziz Z, Khan MA. Feasibility of outpatient management of fever in cancer patients with low-risk neutropenia: results of a prospective randomized trial. Am J Med 1995; 98: 22431.
  • 30
    Rolston KV, Manzullo EF, Elting LS, Frisbee-Hume SE, McMahon L, Theriault RL et al. Once daily, oral, outpatient quinolone monotherapy for low-risk cancer patients with fever and neutropenia: a pilot study of 40 patients based on validated risk-prediction rules. Cancer 2006; 106: 248994.
  • 31
    Elting LS, Lu C, Escalante CP, Giordano SH, Trent JC, Cooksley C et al. Outcomes and cost of outpatient or inpatient management of 712 patients with febrile neutropenia. J Clin Oncol 2008; 26: 60611.
  • 32
    Girmenia C, Russo E, Carmosino I, Breccia M, Dragoni F, Latagliata R et al. Early hospital discharge with oral antimicrobial therapy in patients with hematologic malignancies and low-risk febrile neutropenia. Ann Hematol 2007; 86: 26370.
  • 33
    Innes HE, Smith DB, O'Reilly SM, Clark PI, Kelly V, Marshall E. Oral antibiotics with early hospital discharge compared with in-patient intravenous antibiotics for low-risk febrile neutropenia in patients with cancer: a prospective randomised controlled single centre study. Br J Cancer 2003; 89: 439.
  • 34
    Innes H, Marshall E. Outpatient therapy for febrile neutropenia. Curr Opin Oncol 2007; 19: 2948.
  • 35
    Freifeld A, Marchigiani D, Walsh T, Chanock S, Lewis L, Hiemenz J et al. A double-blind comparison of empirical oral and intravenous antibiotic therapy for low-risk febrile patients with neutropenia during cancer chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 30511.
  • 36
    Kern WV, Cometta A, De Bock R, Langenaeken J, Paesmans M, Gaya H. Oral versus intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy for fever in patients with granulocytopenia who are receiving cancer chemotherapy. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 3128.
  • 37
    Innes H, Lim SL, Hall A, Chan SY, Bhalla N, Marshall E. Management of febrile neutropenia in solid tumours and lymphomas using the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) risk index: feasibility and safety in routine clinical practice. Support Care Cancer 2008; 16: 48591.
  • 38
    Rolston KV, Bodey GP. Comment on: empirical antibiotic monotherapy for febrile neutropenia: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58: 478, author reply 79–80.
  • 39
    Petrilli A, Altruda Carlesse F, Alberto Pires Pereira C. Oral gatifloxacin in the outpatient treatment of children with cancer fever and neutropenia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007; 49: 6826.
  • 40
    Tamura K, Imajo K, Akiyama N, Suzuki K, Urabe A, Ohyashiki K et al. Randomized trial of cefepime monotherapy or cefepime in combination with amikacin as empirical therapy for febrile neutropenia. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39 (Suppl 1): S1524.
  • 41
    Hughes WT, Armstrong D, Bodey GP, Bow EJ, Brown AE, Calandra T et al. 2002 guidelines for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 73051.
  • 42
    Talcott JA, Whalen A, Clark J, Rieker PP, Finberg R. Home antibiotic therapy for low-risk cancer patients with fever and neutropenia: a pilot study of 30 patients based on a validated prediction rule. J Clin Oncol 1994; 12: 10714.
  • 43
    Escalante CP, Weiser MA, Manzullo E, Benjamin R, Rivera E, Lam T et al. Outcomes of treatment pathways in outpatient treatment of low risk febrile neutropenic cancer patients. Support Care Cancer 2004; 12: 65762.