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Confirmed resistance to aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides in Phalaris minor populations in Iran


  • Communicated by A. Cheam.

Javid Gherekhloo, Department of Agronomy, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, 49189-43464, Iran. Email:


Phalaris minor (littleseed canary grass) is a major weed in wheat fields in some parts of Iran. Diclofop-methyl, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, and clodinafop-propargyl are three acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides that are commonly used to control this grass in wheat fields. Thirty-four P. minor populations with suspected resistance to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides were sampled from wheat fields in the provinces of Fars and Golestan in Iran. The dose–response assays that were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions indicated that 14 populations were resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, seven populations were resistant to both fenoxaprop-P-ethyl and diclofop-methyl, and three populations were resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, diclofop-methyl, and clodinafop-propargyl. These populations showed different levels of resistance to the applied herbicides, compared to the susceptible population. These results suggest that different mechanisms of resistance could be involved. The enzyme assay revealed that the existence of modified ACCase in the three most-resistant populations (AR, MR4, and SR3) is responsible for the resistance of these populations.