• 1
    Sekikawa A, Tominaga M, Takahashi K et al. Prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in Funagata area, Japan. Diabetes Care 1993; 16: 570574.
  • 2
    Morgan CL, Currie CJ, Stott NC, Smithers M, Butler CC, Peters JR. The prevalence of multiple diabetes-related complications. Diabet Med 2000; 17: 146151.
  • 3
    Gregg EW, Beckles GL, Williamson DF et al. Diabetes and physical disability among older US adults. Diabetes Care 2000; 23: 12721277.
  • 4
    Gregg EW, Mangione CM, Cauley JA et al. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. Diabetes and incidence of functional disability in older women. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 6167.
  • 5
    Perlmuter LC, Hakami MK, Hodgson-Harrington C et al. Decreased cognitive function in aging non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Am J Med 1984; 77: 10431048.
  • 6
    Araki A, Ito H. Asymptomatic cerebral infarction on brain MR images and cognitive function in elderly diabetic patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2002; 2: 206214.
  • 7
    Black SA. Increased health burden associated with comorbid depression in older diabetic Mexican Americans. Results from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly survey. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 5664.
  • 8
    Araki A, Nakano T, Oba K et al. Low well-being, cognitive impairment and visual impairment were associated with functional disabilities in elderly Japanese patients with diabetes mellitus. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2004; 4: 2736.
  • 9
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352 (9131): 837853.
  • 10
    UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ 1998; 317 (7160): 703713.
  • 11
    Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E et al. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995; 28: 103117.
  • 12
    Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, Jensen GV, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 383393.
  • 13
    Mahoney FI, Barthel DW. Functional evaluation: the Barthel Index. Mid South Med J 1965; 14: 6165.
  • 14
    Koyano W, Shibata H, Nakazato K, Haga H, Suyama Y. Measurement of competence: reliability and validity of the TMIG Index of Competence. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1991; 13: 103116.
  • 15
    Shibata H, Sugisawa H, Watanabe S. Functional capacity in elderly Japanese living in the community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2001; 1: 813.
  • 16
    Baecke JAH, Burema J, Frijters JER. A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr 1982; 36: 936942.
  • 17
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. Mini-mental state: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975; 12: 189193.
  • 18
    Sheikh JI, Yesavage JA. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. Clin Gerontol 1986; 5: 165173.
  • 19
    Araki A, Ito H. Development of elderly diabetes burden scale for elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2003; 3: 212224.
  • 20
    Takahashi K, Yoshimura Y, Kaigen T, Kunii D, Komatsu R, Yamamoto S. Validation of food frequency questionnaire based on food groups for estimation of individual nutrient intake. Eiyogaku Zasshi 2001; 59: 221232. (In Japanese.)
  • 21
    Hanefeld M, Chiasson JL, Koehler C, Henkel E, Schaper F, Temelkova-Kurktschiev T. Acarbose slows progression of intima-media thickness of the carotid arteries in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Stroke 2004; 35: 10731078.
  • 22
    Chiasson JL, Josse RG, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, Karasik A, Laakso M, STOP-NIDDM Trial Research Group. Acarbose treatment and the risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in patients with impaired glucose tolerance: the STOP-NIDDM trial. JAMA 2003; 290: 486494.
  • 23
    Hanefeld M, Cagatay M, Petrowitsch T, Neuser D, Petzinna D, Rupp M. Acarbose reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients: meta-analysis of seven long-term studies. Eur Heart J 2004; 25: 1016.
  • 24
    Katakami N, Yamasaki Y, Hayaishi-Okano R et al. Metformin or gliclazide, rather than glibenclamide, attenuate progression of carotid intima-media thickness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia 2004; 47: 19061913.
  • 25
    Johnson JA, Simpson SH, Toth EL, Majumdar SR. Reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with metformin use in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 2005; 22: 497502.
  • 26
    Satoh N, Ogawa Y, Usui T et al. Antiatherogenic effect of pioglitazone in type 2 diabetic patients irrespective of the responsiveness to its antidiabetic effect. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 24932499.
  • 27
    Choi D, Kim SK, Choi SH et al. Preventative effects of rosiglitazone on restenosis after coronary stent implantation in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004; 27: 26542660.
  • 28
    The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study Group. Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 25452559.