Aim: Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) has recently been developed as a less invasive alternative to conventional laparoscopy. There are some reports that described the usefulness and prognostic value of diagnostic THL in infertile women. Moreover, operative THL such as ovarian drilling for unovulatory women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) to induce ovulation has also been found to be as effective as that by conventional laparoscopy. The risk of bowel injury and sepsis by transvaginal access with culdoscopy was higher than that with laparoscopy in the previous reports. The purpose of the present study was to examine the risk of diagnostic and operative THL according to two case studies with a literature review.
Methods: The authors carried out diagnostic or operative THL in 177 infertile women, aged 22–43 years. Major complications during THL and a review of the literature were analyzed.
Results: Two cases of bowel injury were diagnosed during diagnostic THL. No complication occurred during operative THL. In total, the incidence of bowel injury was 1.1%. The injuries were diagnosed during THL and treated expectantly under strict conditions in both cases. Ten studies in the literature reported a total of 4232 procedures, including 26 bowel injuries (0.61%) and one perforation of a retroflexed uterus (0.02%).
Conclusions: The usefulness of THL for diagnostic and operative purposes is in no doubt. However, informed consent should be obtained and vigilance before and during THL should be maintained, although it can be done on an outpatient clinic basis.