Aim: This study investigated the utility of visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) as a method for cervical cancer screening in Thailand and examined the relationship of VIA to high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) status.
Methods: Cervical cells were collected from 160 patients receiving a Pap smear. VIA was performed on the cervix of the patients by application of 5% acetic acid. HPV screening of DNA extracted from cytology samples was performed by PCR using the GP5+/6+ primer system followed by reverse line blot hybridization genotyping.
Results: The majority (96.9%) of the patients were diagnosed with normal or inflammatory cytologic changes. 32.8% of normal cytology and 42.0% of inflammation cases showed positive acetowhite staining. 3.1%, 38.1% and 42.5% of subjects were positive for an abnormal Pap test, VIA test, and HPV DNA, respectively. VIA demonstrated 50% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity for abnormal histology with PPV and NPV values of 50% and 66.7%, respectively, whereas HPV DNA test showed 100% sensitivity. HPV16 was the most common (54.4%) and HR-HPV was detected in 36.3% of all cases. 48.5% of HR-HPV positive and 36.8% of HR-HPV negative cervices stained with acetowhite following the VIA test.
Conclusion: The VIA test is a simple method for cervical cancer screening; however, a significant proportion of patients with normal or inflammatory cytology were positive by this test. Further, HR-HPV in women without acetowhite staining was demonstrated. Therefore, some form of HR-HPV detection test may be required for combination with cervical cell screening even in low-resource nations.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.