• adnexal malignancy;
  • color/power Doppler;
  • histogram analysis;
  • 2D ultrasound;
  • 3D power Doppler;
  • 3D ultrasound


Conventional two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound has been widely used for the evaluation of adnexal malignancy in gynecologic fields. This 2D ultrasound evaluation includes a morphological assessment, color/power and pulsed Doppler sonographic assessment, scoring system, and contrast agent assessment of adnexal masses. The introduction of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound would facilitate the novel assessment of adnexal masses. With the recent advance in 3D power Doppler (3DPD) ultrasound as well as quantitative 3DPD histogram analysis, quantitative and qualitative assessments of the vascularization and blood flow of adnexal masses have become feasible. These novel techniques may assist in the evaluation of adnexal malignancy, and offer potential advantages relative to conventional 2D sonographic assessments. 3D ultrasound may be an important modality in future gynecologic oncology research and in the evaluation of adnexal malignancy in clinical practice, although some limitations regarding the assessment of adnexal malignancy employing 3D ultrasound remain unresolved.