Nazli Hossain: conceived the idea, secured funding, carried on original work and wrote the manuscript; Tahir Shamsi: co-investigator, helped in grant and manuscript writing; Nazeer Khan: statistical analysis and helped in manuscript writing; Arshi Naz: responsible for laboratory analysis and helped in manuscript writing.
Thrombophilia investigation in Pakistani women with recurrent pregnancy loss
Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Volume 39, Issue 1, pages 121–125, January 2013
How to Cite
Hossain, N., Shamsi, T., Khan, N. and Naz, A. (2013), Thrombophilia investigation in Pakistani women with recurrent pregnancy loss. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 39: 121–125. doi: 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2012.01925.x
All laboratory analysis was done at the National Institute of Blood Diseases, Karachi, Pakistan.
- Issue published online: 7 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 13 JUN 2012
- Received: September 6 2011.; Accepted: March 20 2012.
- inherited thrombophilia;
- recurrent pregnancy loss
Aim: The aim of the study was to identify thrombophilic defects in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage.
Methods: This was a case-control study in which the cases were women who had undergone spontaneous recurrent pregnancy losses and the controls were women in matched reproductive age groups without any history of miscarriage or pregnancy loss. Both groups of women were identified from our department's high-risk and gynecological outpatient clinics. A total of 52 women with recurrent pregnancy losses and 268 controls were tested for protein C, protein S, factor V Leiden (FVL), antithrombin and anticardiolipin (immunoglobulin M and G) antibodies, and the odds ratio and P-values were calculated.
Results: The mean age was 28.0 ± 4.4 years in the cases and 32.0 ± 8.0 years in the controls. The mean number of abortions among women with recurrent losses was 3.40 ± 1.23. The mean parity was 1.04 ± 1.23 (range 1–6), and 3.27 ± 2.51 among controls. Among women with recurrent pregnancy loss, 22 (42%) had first trimester losses, 19 (36%) had second trimester losses, and 11 (21%) women had both first and second trimester losses. Protein C deficiency was identified in three out of 52 cases and 18 out of 268 controls (P-value 0.49), protein S deficiency in two cases and 12 controls (P-value 0.35), factor V Leiden mutation in 10 cases and 27 controls (P = 0.059), antithrombin in one case and 41 controls (P = 0.009), and anticardiolipin antibodies in one case and nine controls (P = 0.49).
Conclusion: No significant association between inherited thrombophilia and recurrent pregnancy loss in Pakistani women was found.