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Association of maternal periodontal health with adverse pregnancy outcome


Dr Ashok Kumar, 13 B, DDA Flats, Ber Sarai, New Delhi 110016, India. Email:;


Aim:  The present study aims to determine the association of periodontal disease (identified early in pregnancy) and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a North Indian population.

Material and Methods:  A total of 340 primigravida women, aged 20–35 years with single live pregnancy were recruited at 14–20 weeks period of gestation from the antenatal clinic. These women had undergone periodontal examination at time of recruitment. The pregnancy outcomes were recorded.

Results:  Out of 340 primigravida women, 147 (43.23%) women had gingivitis and 61 (17.94%) women had periodontitis. Periodontitis was found to be significantly associated with pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery, and low birthweight with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 7.48 (2.72–22.42), 3.35 (1.20–9.55), 2.72 (1.30–5.68) and 3.03 (1.53–5.97), respectively.

Conclusions:  The study shows a significant association between periodontitis (but not with gingivitis) and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Maternal periodontitis is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm delivery and low birthweight infants.

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