The present paper describes macroscopic fatigue damage in carbon black-filled natural rubber (CB-NR) under uniaxial loading conditions. Uniaxial tension-compression, fully relaxing uniaxial tension and non-relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions were applied until sample failure. Results, summarized in a Haigh-like diagram, show that only one type of fatigue damage is observed for uniaxial tension-compression and fully relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions, and that several different types of fatigue damage take place in non-relaxing uniaxial tension loading conditions. The different damage types observed under non-relaxing uniaxial tension, loading conditions are closely related to the improvement of rubber fatigue life. Therefore, as fatigue life improvement is classically supposed to be due to strain-induced crystallization (SIC), a similar conclusion can be drawn for the occurrence of different types of fatigue damage.