• glutamate;
  • kainate;
  • homocysteate;
  • chloride;
  • calcium


We have investigated the modulatory action of excitatory amino acids (EAA) on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-stimulated cAMP formation in mouse cerebral cortical slices. Glutamate and aspartate potentiate in a concentration-dependent manner the effect of VIP. In order to characterize the type of receptor involved, we have used three prototypical EAA receptor agonists, that is, kainate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and quisqualate. Kainate mimicked the effect of glutamate, NMDA was inactive and quisqualate displayed an inhibitory action. Furthermore, ibotenate also potentiated the effect of VIP on cAMP formation, while L-homocysteate exhibited an inhibitory action. Ibotenate was 4-fold more potent and 2.5 times more effective than glutamate. However, the effects of kainate and ibotenate were not additive, suggesting the activation of a common receptor. Thus, based on this metabotropic action, EAA can be categorized into the following classes: (i) those that potentiate the effect of VIP, such as glutamate, aspartate, kainate and ibotenate; (ii) those that inhibit the effect of VIP, such as L-homocysteate and quisqualate; and (iii) those that are ineffective, such as NMDA and D-homocysteate. The effects of glutamate or ibotenate on VIP-stimulated cAMP formation were completely inhibited by L-phosphoserine and only partially by kynurenate. In a low chloride medium, or in the presence of 8-(N,N-diethylamino) octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate-hydrochloride (TMB-8), an inhibitor of calcium release from internal stores, EAA did not potentiate the effect of VIP, thus stressing the importance of these ions for the transduction of the glutamatergic signal. Our results indicate the existence of marked interactions between EAA and VIP on cAMP formation; the pharmacology of these interactions is, however, clearly distinct from the classical pharmacology of EAA which is mainly based on electrophysiological and binding studies.