• GABA;
  • serotonin;
  • hippocampus;
  • disinhibition;
  • calcium-binding proteins;
  • parvalbumin;
  • calbindin


The termination pattern of median raphe axons was studied in the rat dentate gyrus using Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin as an anterograde tracer, in combination with postembedding immunostaining for γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), and pre-embedding immunostaining for calbindin D28k, parvalbumin and GABA. Postembedding immunogold staining for GABA revealed that the majority (73.7%) of anterogradely labelled median raphe boutons make synaptic contacts with GABA-immunoreactive postsynaptic targets, mainly with dendritic shafts and perikarya. Pre-embedding immunocytochemical double staining for the anterograde tracer and GABA confirmed the electron microscopic results and showed that varicose median raphe axons establish multiple contacts with fusiform interneurons in the hilus and different types of basket cells in the granule cell layer. Some of the innervated cells were shown to contain calbindin D28k, whereas GABAergic interneurons containing another calcium-binding protein, parvalbumin, were never seen to receive multiple contacts from axons of raphe origin. Our results suggest that serotonergic median raphe fibres influence the firing of dentate granule cells via local inhibitory interneurons. The mechanism of using these interneurons with extensive local connections as monosynaptic targets may explain the great efficacy of this pathway in the control of hippocampal electrical activity.