The failure of axon regeneration in the injured mammalian central nervous system has been ascribed, in part, to the inhibitory effects of myelin proteins. To investigate the influence of myelination on neurite growth and regeneration by both central nervous system and peripheral nervous system neurons, isolated rat neonatal retinal ganglion cells and adult and neonatal dorsal root ganglion neurons were cultured on cryostat sections of both immature unmyelinated and mature fully myelinated adult rat optic nerve. In agreement with earlier studies using neonatal peripheral neurons, the adult optic nerve failed to support neurite outgrowth from any of the neurons tested. A new finding was that tissue sections from unmyelinated optic nerve (aged embryonic days 18 and 20, and postnatal days 1–3), also failed to support the growth of neurites from neonatal retinal ganglion cells and both neonatal and adult dorsal root ganglion neurons. Neonatal retinal ganglion cells also failed to extend neurites on sections of pre-degenerated sciatic nerve, a tissue shown in our previous work to be a good substratum for supporting neurite growth for both neonatal and adult DRG neurons. These results suggest that cells in the immature optic nerve either express widely acting axon growth inhibitory molecules unrelated to previously described myelin proteins, or do not synthesize appropriate axon growth promoting molecules. They also reveal that, for axon regeneration, central nervous system and peripheral sensory neurons require distinct substratum interactions.