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Transcriptional response to circumscribed cortical brain ischemia: spatiotemporal patterns in ischemic vs. remote non-ischemic cortex


: Dr S. Jander, as above.


Focal brain infarcts are surrounded by extended perilesional zones that comprise the partially ischemic penumbra but also completely non-ischemic cortex of the remote ipsilateral hemisphere. To delineate the impact of lesion-associated vs. remote processes on transcriptional programming after focal ischemia, we used cDNA array analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in the photothrombosis model of circumscribed cortical ischemia in rats. At an early stage of 4 h after ischemia, gene induction occurred to a similar extent in the ischemic infarct and remote non-ischemic cortex of the ipsilateral hemisphere. Among the genes induced in non-ischemic cortex we found the NGF-inducible genes PC3, VGF and Arc, the transcriptional regulators IκB-α and Stat3, and the β-chemokine MIP-1α (CCL3). At 3 days, the spatial pattern of gene expression had changed dramatically with brain fatty acid-binding protein as the only gene significantly induced in non-ischemic ipsilateral cortex. In contrast, numerous genes were exclusively regulated at the lesion site, comprising genes involved in cell cycle regulation, proteolysis, apoptosis, lipid homeostasis and anti-inflammatory counter-regulation. Cortical spreading depression was identified as the main mechanism underlying gene induction in remote non-ischemic cortex. Our data demonstrate a dynamic spatiotemporal pattern of gene induction, which may contribute to delayed progression of damage or, alternatively, mediate neuroprotection, tissue remodeling and functional compensation.