The haemodynamic response to blood loss consists of three phases: (i) an initial compensatory phase during which resting arterial pressure is maintained; (ii) a decompensatory phase characterized by a sudden, life-threatening hypotension and bradycardia; and (iii) if blood loss ceases, a recompensatory phase during which arterial pressure returns to normal. Previous research indicates that topographically distinct, rostral and caudal parts of the caudal midline medulla (CMM) contain neurons that differentially regulate the timing and magnitude of each of the three phases. Specifically, decompensation depends critically on the integrity of the rostral CMM; whereas compensation and recompensation depend upon the integrity of the caudal CMM. This study aimed to determine, using retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques, if the rostral and caudal CMM gave rise to different sets of projections to the major cardiovascular region of the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) and spinal cord. It was found that rostral and caudal CMM each have projections of varying density to the region containing bulbospinal (presympathetic) motor neurons in the rostral VLM and preganglionic sympathetic motor neurons in the intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord. Via these projections vasomotor tone and hence arterial pressure can be regulated. More strikingly: (i) consistent with a role in mediating bradycardia during decompensation, the rostral CMM projects uniquely to VLM regions containing vagal cardiac motor neurons; and (ii) consistent with its role in mediating recompensation, the caudal CMM projects uniquely onto tyrosine hydroxylase-containing, caudal VLM (A1) neurons whose activity mediates vasopressin release, on which recompensation depends.