The purpose of this study was to identify the networks involved in the regulation of visual accommodation/vergence by contrasting the cortical functions subservient to eye-lens accommodation with those evoked by foveal fixation. Neural activity was assessed in normal volunteers by changes in rCBF measured with PET. Thirteen right-handed subjects participated in three monocular tasks: (i) resting with eyes closed; (ii) sustained foveal fixation upon a LED at 1.2 m (0.83 D); and (iii) accommodating alternately on a near (24 cm, 4.16 D) vs. a far (3.0 m, 0.33 D) LED alternately illuminated in sequential 2 s epochs. The contrast between the conditions of near/far accommodation and of constant foveal fixation revealed activation in cerebellar hemispheres and vermis; middle and inferior temporal cortex (BA 20, 21, 37); striate cortex and associative visual areas (BA 17/18). Comparison of the condition of constant fixation with the condition of resting with closed eyes indicated activation of cerebellar hemispheres and vermis; visual cortices (BA 17/18); a right hemisphere dominant network encompassing prefrontal (BA 6, 9, 47), superior parietal (BA 7), and superior temporal (BA 40) cortices; and bilateral thalamus. The contrast between the conditions of near/far accommodation with closed-eye rest reflected an incremental summation of the activations found in the previous comparisons (i.e. activations associated with constant fixation). Neural circuits activated selectively during the near/far response to blur cues over those during constant visual fixation, occupy posterior structures that include occipital visual regions, cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, and temporal cortex.