The cadherin-related neuronal receptor (CNR)/protocadherin (Pcdh) α family is one of the diverse protocadherin families expressed in developing axons. We observed a strong axonal expression of these proteins at late embryonic and early postnatal stages corresponding to regions where fibers had not yet been myelinated. We therefore followed the postnatal localization of CNR/Pcdhα protein in major axonal tracts, such as the internal capsule, lateral olfactory tract, and optic nerve, and found that its axonal localization was dramatically lost in parallel with the increased expression of myelin markers. Moreover, the hypomyelinated optic nerve tracts of the myelin-deficient Shiverer mouse exhibited elevated levels of CNR/Pcdhα expression. These axonal expression patterns of CNR/Pcdhα in wild-type and Shiverer mice were similar to those of growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and L1, both of which are associated with axonal maturation. Thus, myelination may be a trigger for the local loss of axonal CNR/Pcdhα protein, and this process may be important in the maturation of neural circuits.