During development, gradients of EphA receptors (nasallow–temporalhigh) and their ligands ephrin-As (rostrallow–caudalhigh) are involved in establishing topography between retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the superior colliculus (SC). EphA5-expressing RGC axons are repulsed by ephrin-A2-expressing SC neurones. In adult rats RGCs maintain graded EphA5 expression but ephrin-A2 expression is down-regulated in the SC to a weak gradient. At 1 month after optic nerve transection, EphA5 expression is reduced in the few remaining RGCs and is no longer graded; by contrast, SC ephrin-A2 is up-regulated to a rostrallow–caudalhigh gradient. Here we examined expression in adult rat 1 month after bridging the retina and SC with a peripheral nerve graft, a procedure that enhances RGC survival and permits RGC axon regeneration. Double labelling with cell markers revealed preservation of a nasallow–temporalhigh EphA5 gradient in RGCs and establishment of a rostrallow–caudalhigh ephrin-A2 gradient within neurones of the SC. The results suggest a potential for guidance cues to restore the topography of RGC axons in the SC. However, high ephrin-A2 levels were also found in astrocytes surrounding the peripheral nerve graft insertion site. The repulsive ephrin-A2 environment offers at least a partial explanation for the observation that only a limited number of RGC axons can exit the graft to enter target central nervous system tissue.