• chronic pain;
  • galanin;
  • nerve injury;
  • plasticity;
  • spinal cord


Peripheral nerve injury-induced structural and chemical modifications of the sensory circuits in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord contribute to the mechanism of neuropathic pain. In contrast to the topographic projection of primary afferents in laminae I–IV in the rat spinal cord, the primary afferents of Macaca mulatta monkeys almost exclusively project into laminae I–II of the spinal cord. After peripheral nerve injury, up-regulation of galanin has been found in sensory neurons in both monkey and rat dorsal root ganglia. However, the nerve injury-induced ultrastructural modification of galanin-containing afferents in the monkey spinal cord remains unknown. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found that 3 weeks after unilateral sciatic nerve transection, the number of galanin-containing afferents was increased in ipsilateral lamina II of monkey spinal cord. Branching of these galanin-positive afferents was often observed. The afferent terminals contained a large number of synaptic vesicles, peptidergic vesicles and mitochondria, whereas the number of synapses was markedly reduced. Some of the afferents-enriched microtubules were often packed into bundles. Moreover, galanin-labeling could be associated with endosomal structures in many dendrites and axonal terminals of dorsal horn neurons. These results suggest that peripheral nerve injury induces an expansion of the central projection of galanin-containing afferents in lamina II of the monkey spinal cord, not only by increasing galanin levels in primary afferents but also by triggering afferent branching.